How to develop historical consciousness through uses of history - A Swedish perspective

Robert Thorp


Historical consciousness is a popular concept in history education that has often been considered as difficult to apply in educational practice. Taking its departure in the Swedish Schools’ Inspectorate’s recent critique of how Swedish history teaching cannot contribute to a development of students’ historical consciousnesses, this article discusses how we can theoretically understand how a development historical consciousness may happen. Using the results of this discussion, it is then suggested how historical consciousness could be developed in history education.


historical consciousness; uses of history; history education; historical thinking

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Copyright (c) 2021 Robert Thorp

Historical Encounters is a double blind peer-reviewed, open access, interdisciplinary journal dedicated to the empirical and theoretical study of historical consciousness, historical cultures, and history education.

The journal is published by the HERMES History Education Research Network concentrated at The University of Newcastle, Australia. The journal publishes at least two issues per year (one will typically have a special theme). To ensure timely availability of scholarship, articles and reviews are published as soon as they have been successfully through the peer review and editorial processes, adding cumulatively to the content for the single regular issue each year. No fees are charged for subscription or publication. The journal is indexed in SCOPUSDOAJ, and Google Scholar, and periodically archived in the National Library of Australia's PANDORA Archive. Contributors to the journal retain copyright to their work. Please read the Copyright Notice for full details.

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A/ Professor Robert J. Parkes, PhD
Editor-in-Chief | Historical Encounters
Faculty of Education and Arts
The University of Newcastle
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ISSN 2203-7543